Ants of North Carolina (species list) [North Carolina Pest Ants] [North Carolina Exotic Ants]
Joe MacGown

The following list of ant species includes 178 species. This species is based on literature records, the Ants of North Carolina web site (Guenard, Sanders, and Dunn) personal communication with various ant researchers, preliminary results of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI), and from specimens in the the Mississippi Entomological Museum (MEM). Although various researchers have studied the ants of North Carolina, the most comphrehensive work was done by Carter (1962), with future works mostly building on his initial research. The most recent work has culminated in the development of the Ants of North Carolina web site. This site includes lists of species, physiographic regions the ants were collected from, and wonderful photos of many of the species in the wild.

Clicking on a species name will lead to a page with further information and photographs of that species. Although species pages are at various levels of progress, most pages now have representative photographs of at least workers of the species. In addition to the photographs of ants taken by Joe MacGown at the Mississippi Entomological Museum (MEM), many photos are used, with permission, from AntWeb, a web site about ants of the world with amazing photos. Another site with photographs of ants is "Discover Life." The Discover Life site provides a list of North American ants with photos at "Kinds of Ants , Ants of North America Page". On each individual MEM species page, a link is provided (at the bottom of the page) for that species on both the AntWeb site and the Discover Life ant site. Additionally, many of the species found in this list can be identified using the identification keys found on this web site.

The list presented is arranged by subfamily, tribe, and genus according to Bolton (2003). Names follow Bolton and Alpert (2012). For species that are introduced or considered to be pest species, that designation is given following the species name. For species whose origin is uncertain, the word "introduced" is followed by the "?" symbol. Similarly, for questionable pest species, the word "pest" is followed by the "?" symbol. Pest species include species that are considered to be serious pests, in that they may cause significant damage or health problems, to mild, nuisance pests.

Family Formicidae
Subfamily Dolichoderinae
Tribe Dolichoderini
Dolichoderus mariae Forel [Carter, 1962; MacKay, 1993; Guenard et al., 2008]
Dolichoderus plagiatus (Mayr) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Dolichoderus pustulatus Mayr [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Dolichoderus taschenbergi (Mayr) [Carter, 196; Guenard et al., 20082]
Dorymyrmex bureni (Trager) [Peck et al., 1998; Guenard et al., 2008]
Dorymyrmex flavopectus Smith [Guenard et al., 2008]
Dorymyrmex grandulus (Forel) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Dorymyrmex smithi Cole [Peck et al., 1998-reported as Conomyrma medeis; Guenard et al., 2008]
Forelius mccooki (McCook) [MEM]
Forelius pruinosus (Roger) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008] ]
Linepithema humile (Mayr) (introduced, pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) (introduced, pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Tapinoma sessile (Say) (pest)
[MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Technomyrmex difficilis Forel (introduced, pest-previously misidentified as T. albipes (Smith), see Wetterer, 2008) [Guenard et al., 2008]

Subfamily Formicinae
Tribe Lasiini
Lasius alienus (Foerster) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008;Smith, 1979]
Lasius claviger (Roger) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius flavus (Fabricius) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius interjectus (Mayr) [MEM; Carter, 1962]
Lasius latipes (Walsh) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius murphyi (Forel) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius nearcticus Wheeler [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008; Smith, 1979]
Lasius neoniger Emery [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius pallitarsis (Provancher) [Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius plumopilosus Buren [Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius pubescens Buren [Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius speculiventris Emery [Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius subglaber (Emery) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Lasius umbratus (Nylander) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Nylanderia arenivaga (Wheeler) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Nylanderia concinna (Trager) [Trager, 1984; Guenard et al., 2008]
Nylanderia faisonensis (Forel) [MEM; Peck et al., 1998; Trager, 1984; Guenard et al., 2008]
Nylanderia parvula (Mayr) [Carter, 1962; Trager, 1984; Guenard et al., 2008]
Nylanderia vividula (Nylander) (introduced?, pest) [MEM; Trager, 1984]
Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (introduced, pest)
Prenolepis imparis (Say) (pest?) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Plagiolepidini
Brachymyrmex depilis Emery [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Brachymyrmex patagonicus Mayr (introduced, pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Camponotini
Camponotus americanus Mayr (pest) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus caryae (Fitch) (pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus castaneus (Latreille) (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus chromaiodes Bolton (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus decipiens Emery (pest) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus floridanus (Buckley) (pest) [Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus impressus (Roger) [Carter, 1962-reported as C. pylartes; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus mississippiensis Smith [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus nearcticus Emery (pest) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus noveboracensis (Fitch) (pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus obliquus Smith [Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer) (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus snellingi Bolton (pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus socius Roger (pest) [Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Camponotus subbarbatus Emery (pest)
[Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Formicini
Formica argentea Wheeler [Peck et al., 1998]
Formica aserva Forel [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica biophilica Trager [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica difficilis Emery [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica dolosa Buren [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica exsectoides Forel [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica fusca Linnaeus [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica incerta Buren [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica integra Nylander [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica neogagates Emery [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica obscuriventris Mayr [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica pallidefulva Latreille [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica pergandei Emery [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica postoculata Kennedy and Dennis [Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica rubicunda Emery [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Formica subintegra Wheeler [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008
]
Formica subsericea Say [MEM; Guenard et al., 2008]
Polyergus longicornis Smith [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Trager, 2013]

Polyergus lucidus Mayr [Trager 2013]
Polyergus ruber Trager ( [Trager 2013]

Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae
Tribe Pseudomyrmecini

Pseudomyrmex ejectus (Smith) (pest?) [Carter, 1962-reported as P. brunnea; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pseudomyrmex pallidus (Smith) (pest?)
[Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Subfamily Ecitoninae
Tribe Ecitonini
Neivamyrmex carolinensis (Emery) [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Neivamyrmex nigrescens (Cresson) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Neivamyrmex opacithorax (Emery) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Neivamyrmex texanus Watkins
[Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]

Subfamily Amblyoponinae
Tribe Amblyoponini
Stigmatomma pallipes (Haldeman) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Stigmatomma trigonignathum (Brown)
[Brown 1949]

Subfamily Ponerinae
Tribe Ponerini

Brachyponera chinensis (Emery) (introduced, pest) [MEM; Guenard et al., 2008]
Cryptopone gilva (Roger)[Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Hypoponera gleadowi ?? (Forel) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Hypoponera opaciceps (Mayr) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Hypoponera opacior (Forel) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Ponera exotica Smith [Carter, 1962]
Ponera pennsylvanica Buckley [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Subfamily Proceratiinae
Tribe Proceratiini
Discothyrea testacea Roger [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Proceratium croceum (Roger) [Baroni Urbani and de Andrade, 2003;Carter, 1962]
Proceratium pergandei (Emery) [Baroni Urbani and de Andrade, 2003; Carter, 1962]
Proceratium silaceum Roger [MEM; Baroni Urbani and de Andrade, 2003; Carter, 1962]

Subfamily Myrmicinae

Tribe Dacetini
Strumigenys abdita Wesson & Wesson [Bolton, 2000]
Strumigenys angulata Smith [Guenard et al., 2008]
Strumigenys bimarginata Wesson & Wesson [Guenard et al., 2008]
Strumigenys carolinensis (Brown) [Bolton, 2000]
Strumigenys clypeata Roger [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys creightoni Smith [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys dietrichi Smith [MEM; Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys filirrhina (Brown) [Bolton, 2000]
Strumigenys laevinasis Smith [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys louisianae Roger
[Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979]
Strumigenys membranifera Emery (introduced)
Strumigenys missouriensis Smith [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys ohioensis Kennedy & Schramm [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys ornata Mayr [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys pergandei Emery [MEM, Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys pilinasis Forel [Bolton, 2000; Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys pulchella Emery [Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys reflexa Wesson & Wesson [Bolton, 2000]
Strumigenys rostrata Emery [MEM, Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys talpa Weber [Carter, 1962]
Strumigenys wrayi (Brown) [Bolton, 2000]

Tribe Attini
Trachymyrmex septentrionalis (McCook)
[Carter, 1962]

Tribe Stenammini
Stenamma brevicorne (Mayr) [ATBI]
Stenamma diecki Emery [MEM; Smith, 1957; Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979]
Stenamma foveolocephalum Smith Dubois and Davis, 1998]
Stenamma impar Forel [Carter, 1962]
Stenamma meridionale Smith [Carter, 1962]
Stenamma schmittii Wheeler
[MEM; Carter, 1962]

Tribe Solenopsidini
Monomorium minimum (Buckley) (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962]
Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) (introduced, pest) [Carter, 1962]
Monomorium viridum Brown [Guenard et al., 2008]
Solenopsis carolinensis Forel [Pacheco, 2007]
Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) [Ahlstrom, 1995] (pest)
Solenopsis globularia Creighton [Carter, 1962]
Solenopsis invicta Buren (introduced, pest) [Peck et al., 1998; Guenard et al., 2008]
Solenopsis molesta (Say) (pest) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Solenopsis pergandei Forel [Pacheco, 2007]
Solenopsis picta Emery [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Solenopsis texana Emery [Carter, 1962]
Solenopsis xyloni McCook (pest)
[Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Myrmicini
Myrmica americana Weber [Smith, 1979]
Myrmica fracticornis Forel [Carter, 1962]
Myrmica incompleta Provancher [Peck et al., 1998]
Myrmica latifrons Starcke [MEM; ATBI; Carter, 1962-reported as M. emeryana]
Myrmica pinetorum Wheeler [ATBI; Carter, 1962]
Myrmica punctiventris Roger [MEM; Carter, 1962]
Myrmica spatulata Smith [ATBI]
Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille)
[Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979]

Tribe Tetramoriini
Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander) (introduced, pest) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus) (introduced, pest)
[MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Pheidolini
Aphaenogaster ashmeadi Emery [Carter, 1962]
Aphaenogaster carolinensis Wheeler [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster flemingi Smith [Carter, 1962]
Aphaenogaster floridana Smith [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster fulva Roger [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster lamellidens Mayr [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster mariae Forel [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster picea (Wheeler) [MEM; Carter, 1962]
Aphaenogaster rudis Enzmann [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster tennesseensis (Mayr) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Aphaenogaster treatae Forel [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole bicarinata Mayr (pest?) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole crassicornis Emery [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole davisi Wheeler [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979]
Pheidole dentata Mayr (pest?) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole dentigula Smith [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole floridana Emery [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979]
Pheidole metallescens Emery [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole morrisi Forel [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole pilifera (Roger) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Pheidole tysoni Forel
[Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Crematogastrini
Crematogaster ashmeadi Mayr (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster atkinsoni Wheeler [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster cerasi (Fitch) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster lineolata (Say) (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster minutissima Mayr [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster missuriensis Emery [Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster pilosa Emery (pest) [MEM; Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Crematogaster vermiculata Emery
[Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Formicoxenini
Protomognathus americanus (Emery) [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax curvispinosus (Mayr) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax longispinosus (Roger) [Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax minutissimus Smith [Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax pergandei (Emery) [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax schaumii (Roger) [Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax smithi (Baroni Urbani) [Smith, 1979]
Temnothorax texanus (Wheeler) [Carter, 1962; Smith, 1979; Guenard et al., 2008]
Temnothorax tuscaloosae (Wilson)
[Carter, 1962; Guenard et al., 2008]

Tribe Myrmecinini
Myrmecina americana Emery
[MEM; Carter, 1962]

Literature Cited

Ahlstrom, K. R. 1995. Insects of North Carolina, fourth supplement, part 1: Hymenoptera. North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture. 147 pp.

Baroni Urbani, C. and M. L. de Andrade. 2003.  The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie 36:  1-480. 

Bolton, B. 2000.  The Ant Tribe Dacetini.  Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute.  Vol. 65, part 1-2. 

Bolton, B. & G. D. Alpert. 2012. Barry Bolton’s Synopsis of the Formicidae and Catalogue of Ants of the World, in http://gap.entclub.org/ Version: 1 July 2012. Accessed on 3 July 2012.

Brimley, C. S. 1938. Insects of North Carolina. North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture. 560 pp.

Brown, W. L. 1949. A new American Amblyopone, with notes on the genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche 56: 81-88.

Carter, W. G. 1962. "Ant distribution in North Carolina." J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 78:150-204.

Dubois, M. and L. R. Davis.  1998.  Stenamma foveolocephalum (= S. carolinense) rediscovered (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 32: 125-138.

Guenard, B., N. Sanders, and R. Dunn. 2007. Ants of North Carolina. http://www4.ncsu.edu/~bsguenar/Ants_of_NC%20BG.htm (accessed 12 November 2008).

MacKay, W. P. 1993. A review of the New World ants of the genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 22: 1-148.

Nuhn, T. P. and C. G. Wright. 1979. An ecological survey of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a landscaped suburban habitat. American Midland Naturalist 102: 353-362.

Pacheco, J. A. 2007. The New World ants of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at El Paso. i-xxi +543 pp.

Peck, S. L., B. McQuaid, and C. L. Campbell.  1998.  Using ant species (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) as a biological indicator of agroecosystem condition.  Environmental Entomology 27: 1102-1110. 

Smith, M. R. 1957. Revision of the genus Stenamma Westwood in America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The American Midland Naturalist 57: 133-174.

Smith, D. R. 1979. In Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C. Vol. 2, pp. 1323-1427.

Trager, J. C. 1984.  A revision of the genus Nylanderia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology 9:  49-162. 

Trager, J. C. 1988. A revision of the Conomyrma (Hymenoptera: Fomicidae) from the southeastern United States, especially Florida, with keys to the species. Florida Entomologist 71: 11-29.

Trager, J. C., J. A. MacGown and M. D. Trager. 2007. Revision of the Nearctic endemic Formica pallidefulva group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). In: Snelling, R. R., P. S. Ward, and B. L. Fisher (editors), Advances in ant systematics. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 610-636.

Wetterer, J. K. 2008. Technomyrmex difficilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae (in the West Indies). Florida Entomologist 91: 428-430.

Wray, D. L. 1967. Insects of North Carolina, third supplement. North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture. 181 pp.

Links

Ants of North Carolina - by Benoit Guenard, Nate Sanders, and Rob Dunn