Autostichidae Overview

          Hodges (1998) defined this family by the gnathos being an articulated band with an unarticulated mesial hook, parallel with some Coleophoridae, and the abdominal terga with spiniform setae in a band across the segment, parallel with Schistonoeinae, Syringopainae, Blastobasinae, and Pterolonchinae.
          Larvae feed on dead or decaying plant and animal material.
          The family includes more than 308 species in 67 genera that are distributed in the Nearctic, Palearctic, Australian, and Polynesian Regions (Hodges, 1998).

Holcopogoninae
          This subfamily has the female retinaculum composed of a series of anteriorly directed scales between Sc and R and posteriorly directed scales and setae on Sc. The hindwing is lanceolate and has Rs and M1 long stalked. Larvae have reduced or undeveloped stemmata, A1-8 without a pinaculum ring around SD1 or a pore posterad of SD1, and A9 with 2 extra D setae (Hodges, 1998).
          The larva of Holcopogon bubulcellus feeds on cattle dung.
          The subfamily includes 18 species in seven genera, occurring in the Palearctic region, mainly in xeric areas of the Mediterranean and eastward (Hodges, 1998).

          References: Amsel (1942), Benander (1937), Gozmány (1964, 1967), Hodges (1978), Vives Moreno (1987).

Autostichinae
          Hodges (1998) defined this subfamily by 1) female retinaculum consisting of anteriorly directed setae/scales from the cell between base of CuA and R to an area between Sc and R, 2), larvae with pore posterad of SD1 on A1-8, and 3) larva with pinaculum ring around SD1 on A1-8. The hindwing has Rs and stalked/connate/separate M1 (Hodges, 1998). The abdominal terga have fine, slender setae.
          Larvae have been recorded as feeding on lichens and decaying vegetable matter (Hodges, 1998).
          The subfamily includes 120+ species in 18 genera in the eastern Palearctic, Australasia, and Polynesia regions (Hodges, 1998).

          References: Common (1990), Hodges (1978), Le Marchand (1947), Zimmerman (1978).


Symmocinae
          Hodges (1998) defined this subfamily by the forewing having CuP absent (parallel with Glyphidoceridae, Cosmopterigidae, Deoclinae, and Gelechiidae), female retinaculum with a series of anteriorly directed scales between CuA and R, and the gnathos forming a slender lateral band becoming a mesial hook.
          Larvae are scavengers on dead plant tissue.
          The subfamily includes 170+ species in 42 genera, mainly concentrated in the Mediterranean region east to China in xeric areas.

          References: Gozmány (1957, 1959, 1963, 1964), Hodges (1978), Stehr (1987).