Hodges (1998) described this family based on the gnathos forming an articulated band with a mesial bulb bearing parallel rows of short spines (parallel with Peleopodidae, Amphisbatidae, and some Agonoxeninae), and the female retinaculum having anteriorly directed scales on CuA or between CuA and R.
The family occurs in the New World and Palearctic Region and includes three genera and four species in two subfamilies.
Hodges (1998) named this subfamily to include three species in two genera, Proclesis and Deoclona. Larvae feed in dry seedpods of Fabaceae, Liliaceae, or fruit mummies of Rosaceae. The subfamily occurs from California to northern Argentina.
References: Busck (1939), Clarke (1969b), Hodges (1998), Keifer (1936).
This subfamily was named by Hodges (1998) based on a single species of Syringopais Hering (1919). Larvae are leaf miners on Triticum (Poaceae) in the Palearctic Region, from the Mediterranean to India.
References: Hering (1919), Hodges (1998)