Identification - Keys to Families


Front legs strongly dilated and modified for digging, all tarsi, 3 segmented, length 20-35mm


Front legs not strongly dilated and modified for digging, or if so front and middle tarsi 2 segmented, and the total body length is less than 10mm

2 (1’). Front and middle tarsi with only 2 segments
2’ Front and middle tarsi with 3 or 4 segments
3(2).  Pronotum prolonged and tapering backwards over the abdomen; front wings vestigial or absent; hind tarsi with 2 segments
3’.  Pronotum not prolonged over back; forewings not vestigial, hind tarsi 1-segmented or absent; foreleg somewhat modified for digging
4 (2’). Antennae usually short; rarely half as long as the body; auditory organs (tympana), if present, located on the side of the first abdominal segment

Antennae long; usually as long as the body or longer; auditory organs, if present, located at the base of the front tibiae

5 (4).  Hind tibia with both inner and outer immovable spines at apex; prosternum with median spine or tubercule

Hind tibia with only the inner immovable spine at apex; prosternum with or without median spine

6 (4’). All tarsi 3 segmented; ovipositor needle shaped; ocelli present or absent

At least middle tarsi; and usually all tarsi 4 segmented; ovipositor sword shaped; ocelli usually present

7 (6). Wingless, broadly oval; hind femora greatly enlarged; eyes small and ocelli absent, length 2-4mm; living in ant nests
7’. Not fitting the characteristics given above
8 (7’). Wings very short or absent; hind tibiae without long spines (but with apical spurs); body covered with scales; hind femora stout
8’. Wings usually well developed; hind tibiae nearly always with long spines, body not covered with scales; hind femora moderately enlarged
9 (6’). Wing usually present, but sometimes greatly reduced, and with fewer than 8 longitudinal viens; males with stridulatory structures on front wings, front tibiae with tympana; color variable, but often green
9’. Wings usually absent, but if present then with 8 or more principal longitudinal viens; males lacking stridulatory structures on front wings; front tibiae with or without tympana; often gray or brown in color
10. Antennae bases separated by a space less than the width of first antennal segment, or nearly so
10’ Antennae bases sepparted by a distance equal to or greater than the length of first antennal segment